Pandora is the fifth moon of the gas giant Polyphemus (both are figures in Greek mythology), which orbits the closest star to the sun, Alpha Centauri A. Discovered by the first interstellar expedition in 2129, Pandora has been the single most interesting thing to happen to the human race in hundreds of years. The news services love to run clips of the wild scenery on Pandora and its bizarre flora and fauna .
To the cultures of Earth, Pandora is mysterious, primal and terrifying. Even from orbit, the scope of florae present on the surface indicates a planet brimming with life. One of the creatures on Pandora is the direhorse, a gray-skinned, hexapodal horse-like animal with bioluminescent qualities that the Na'vi ride when hunting. The Na'vi also ride the mountain banshee to hunt from the air, but the hunter can become prey in the presence of the great leonopteryx.
In the canopy below, other deadly yet exotic animals roam: vicious packs of viperwolves, thick skinned hammerhead titanotheres and the most fearsome creature of all, the thanator. Other than the color, the trees resemble those of Earth. They have the familiar trunks, branches and leaves, though due to the difference in planetary gravity, many of the shapes appear strange to humans and the proportions are greater because of the lower gravity. The trees and plant life of Pandora have formed electrochemical connections between their roots and effectively act as neurons, creating a planet-wide "brain" that has achieved sentience, which is known to the Na'vi as Eywa.
History & Geological Information of Pandora
The history of Pandora could only be dated by carbon dating of rock samples dug deep within the excavation sites near Hell's Gate. Many scientists concluded that Pandora is indeed just shy of a million years older than Earth.
But beyond that, it has be proven difficult to get the layout of the existences of Pandora's lifespan. Other's have looked to the Na'vi in getting geological information of Pandora, including how they lived and grew with different terrain biomes.
During the creation of the Alpha Centauri system, Pandora came into existences as a large moon orbiting the gas giant Polyphemus. The left over debris from the creation of the system left very little room for the creation of other bodies. What much remains of Alpha Centauri is gas giants with several moons. Pandora being the biggest of these moons was not however alone in the system of being the biggest object that was not a gas giant.
A Mars-sized object became rogue when it was suddenly struck by an asteroid, hurdling the planetoid towards Polyphemus. It ultimately smashed into Pandora, ejecting a plethora of debris into space before returning to orbit around Polyphemus, becoming the two moons of the gas giant. However, Pandora being nearly oblirated by this Mars-sized object surprisingly survived the onslaught, yet losing over a quarter of its size. The Mars-object was not so lucky. Most of the molten core were assimilated with Pandora's molten crust, forming the mineral Unobtanium.
What little was left of this Mars-sized object remains to be debated. Many scientists theorized it was simply "swallowed" by the gas giant, while others believe it merged with Pandora, creating a more earthly-sized moon. Whatever the case remains, Pandora was and is forever changed by the violent celestial event.
Evolution of Life
Even on Earth, it is difficult to determine exactly where life came from. For Pandora, this is proven incredibly difficult if not all the more complex due to the immense bio-diversity there. In regards to the Na'vi, scientists believe that the Na'vi lineange of their ancestors began with the monkey-like creature who were related to the prolemuris, then evolved into what Humans classify as the Na'vi.
As for other creatures, they are seen to have evolved similarly as the Na'vi have in correleation to their environment and habitat.
Despite Pandora being considered as a one-temperate world, it does in fact have numerous biomes. The mast majority however is the humid jungles that is widely seen well across the moon, but other environments include sahara-like deserts and freezing cold snow-filled deserts of the north and south poles. Since the RDA had not sent expeditions to the poles, it is believed that there are Na'vi tribes in existences that live in these different assortment of environments.
This biome appears to be the major leading biome on Pandora today. Since Pandora is an ever shifting world being tugged by two celestial objects, it has a tendancy to change from time to time. Ten thousand years ago, scientists discovered that was true when it appeared that Australis was once a Taiga-like biome.